Journalistic text types message, news, report

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report, news and Report belong to the text type of journalistic Information texts. So these texts do not evaluate and do not express an opinion. Rather they are factual and live from the so-called news value. Your Function consists of giving the reader Knowledge about events to convey, that are both new and informative for them.

At first glance, they differ in length:

  • A Message is briefly, it consists only of few lines.
  • The Message fills about one newspaper column.
  • The Report offers additional background information and can several columns be long.

Smooth transitions

In the journalistic practice By the way, the transitions between the text types message, news and report are often fluent. However, knowing the characteristics of each type of text is one of the basics of any journalistic work.

And also for the analysis When writing journalistic texts, it is important to know the characteristics of each type of text, because only with this knowledge is it possible to mixed forms or also the conscious Playing with characteristics of text types (z. B. in literary texts) can be recognized.

The message

The message brings the central information in a few lines, sometimes even in a single sentence.

The message is the shortest text form, it answers the central W questions:

  • WHO is involved?
  • WHAT has happened?
  • WHEN it happened?
  • WHERE it has happened?

And, if possible, the more detailed circumstances:

  • HOW it happened?

News is produced by news- and Press agencies offered, z. B. from the German Press Agency (dpa) or the Science Information Service (idw). The agencies classify the news according to urgency (priority).

The news

The news is one of the most important information texts from an objective perspective.

One message is more detailed than a report, it must contain all the seven of the so-called W-questions answer:

  • WHO is affected?
  • WHAT has happened?
  • WHEN it happened?
  • WO it happened?
  • HOW it happened? (Which consequences?)
  • WHY?
  • WHERE the information comes?

The central characteristic of the message is its Conciseness. That is, it is concentrated and condensed. It refrains from prolixity and comments. The text should informative, easy to understand and memorable be.

The message is very demanding high objectivity of the presentation. Therefore the author must carefully researched and its Precisely designate sources of information.

The structure of a message

The headline (in technical jargon "the head") should attention awaken, the Leader (in technical jargon "the lead") to read motivate.

The lead briefly and concisely conveys the most important information. Head and Lead together should make the reader curious enough to read the following text.

The message lives from the hierarchical structure: First things first. Then the second most important and after that – in descending weighting – further information.

The report

What distinguishes the report from the news? The report enriches the message with information that follows the answer to the W-questions. It supplements the message with additional elements such as concrete details and background.

For example, the journalist goes to the location of the event, converses with Affected and thus gains even more background knowledge. Will then in the text alternating direct and indirect speech used, this makes a report dynamic and living.

Also first Classifications are usually part of the report: is it one incident in a series of similar incidents that are becoming more frequent and worrying the population, or is the content of the report an unprecedented event that raises completely new questions?

The text always remains objective and does not reflect the opinion of the author.

Conclusion Report makes the facts more understandable.

The structure of a report

Like the news, the review begins with Head and Lead. The most important comes at the beginning, and of course the report also answers the seven W-questions, supplemented by additional elements such as concrete details, background, classification.

Enter and the Conclusion form the Frame of the report and make it a coherent whole. This can z. B. be a situational introduction that is taken up again at the end.

Totally objective – is that possible at all?

According to the definition, news and reports should always be objective, i.e. contain only facts and not the opinion of the author.

However, subjective decisions always come into play through the selection of information and quotes, as well as their order and nuances.

Serious journalism names the sources of the information used and addresses z. B. also why certain questions cannot be answered at the time of reporting.

Orientation in the flood of news

The flood of news on the Internet challenges everyone – journalists, who depend on reliable sources to disseminate accurate information, and the audience that consumes the journalistic products.

Martin Bernstein, police reporter for the "Suddeutsche Zeitung"

The task of the media is to provide people with an orientation, a "guide through the news jungle, like Martin Bernstein from the "Suddeutsche Zeitung" expresses it. In "times when everyone believes that 140 characters on Twitter is already news", it is all the more important "to say why is this report, this story, this news important? How can you incorporate it into your life? Is it relevant?"

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