Since January 2021 there is at least 219 euros per month per child. One time in May there is a child bonus of 150 euros per child. Children who have reached the age of majority are entitled to child benefit if they are studying or in training. Child benefit is paid to the parents, a diversion directly to the student is possible in exceptional cases.
Child benefit can also be granted for large children such as students.
The child benefit is a (small) part of the study financing, which is closely related to the maintenance by the parents. If the parents are not able to provide sufficient support, BAfoG should step in.
1. Frequently asked questions
The amount of child benefit since January 2021 is at least 219 euros and depends on the number of children it is. For the fourth child and each additional child there are 250 euros per month each.
Maximum up to the 25. Birthday. The child benefit ends before that, when the study ends or. is interrupted.
Only those who have already completed a first vocational training or a first degree, work more than 20 hours / week and do not earn money as a mini-jobber or working student, can lose their right to child benefit because of income during studies. A bachelor’s degree is considered a first degree.
The child bonus 2021 amounts to 150 euros for each child that is born in 2021 in mind. is entitled to child benefit for one month. It is usually paid in May 2021.
Child benefit is generally due to the child, provided he or she still has a maintenance claim against the parents. However, child benefit cannot be claimed in addition to alimony. If the parents do not pay any or too little maintenance, the child benefit can be diverted to the child on application.
2. Amount and purpose of child benefit
The child bonus is a state benefit intended to secure the livelihood of children by providing financial relief for their parents.
The Amount of child benefit depends on the number of children entitled to child benefit. Since January 2021 there are for the first child 219 Euro per month, before that it was 204 euros since July 2019. The counting starts with the first born child. Children for whom your parents cannot receive child benefit (because they z. B. have exceeded the age limit), are not counted.
High-income parents benefit more from tax allowances for the children ("Child allowance"). Since 2021, this has been per child/year at 8.388 € (2020: 7.812 €, 2019: 7.620 €, 2018: 7.428 €). Which alternative is more favorable for the parents is automatically checked by the tax office each year in connection with the income tax return. Parents with a child have, compared to an equal-earning couple without a child, min. the child benefit more. If they earn a lot and the child allowance has a greater effect, the difference becomes even greater, as the tax advantage is then higher than the child benefit.
Child bonus 2021
For each child for whom there is (or was) an entitlement to child benefit in at least one month in 2021, a one-time Child bonus of 150 euros is granted (source and further info.). This will be in May 2021 Paid a few days after the regular child benefit payment, provided there is child benefit entitlement in that month. For all others, payment is made later. A special application beyond the normal child benefit application is not necessary.
(Similar already existed in 2020, at that time even a total of 300 euros in two installments; also under Corona laws.)
3. Age limit / duration and end of child benefit payment
For children who in training for a profession are (z.B. including studies), there is generally until the age of 25. Birthday Child benefit. Study or. Education must be proven accordingly.
The age limit is so already since 2008. Before 2006, on the other hand, child benefit was still available for all children up to the age of 27. Birthday.
End of entitlement to child benefit
If there is no exception and you are not if you are in education, the entitlement to child benefit ends with the month in which you turn 18 years old.
The exceptions include transitional periods between training periods or bspw. Waiting periods for a place at university, which must be proven in each case. You can find out exactly which times these are in the article Child benefit in transitional period or waiting period. In such cases, the entitlement ends either when you reach the relevant age limit or when the other conditions that justify the entitlement to child benefit cease to apply. If, for example, your parents were able to receive child benefit for you because you were being trained for a profession, this requirement does not apply if you complete or drop out of the training program.
If the Age limit decisive for the end of the entitlement, the last child benefit payment is made in the month in which the birthday falls with which you exceed the age limit. Most often, this is the month you turn 25 (for children without a job, this is 21. birthday is decisive).
Is the End of the training decisive for the end of your child benefit entitlement, child benefit will be paid for the last time in the month in which z. B. your last year of school or semester of study ends, unless you have been officially informed about the result of the final examination beforehand. Then the education ends with the month in which the notification is made. If more than three months have passed since the end of your last semester of study (prior to exmatriculation or leave of absence for the purpose of taking the examination), you will only continue to receive child benefit if you submit a certificate from the examination office stating, in addition to the expected date of the examination, that you have registered for the examination. You do not have to be enrolled during the examination period.
Even if you remain enrolled after completing your studies, your child benefit entitlement ends. Something else only applies if you seriously and purposefully begin further studies. In this case, the child benefit entitlement ends at the latest when you reach the age limit.
If you are Drop out of studies, you will receive child benefit for the last time in the month in which you exmatriculate. However, if you then start training again or if a transitional period / waiting period can be claimed, it is possible to continue to receive child benefit.
At children without a training place the entitlement to child benefit ends z. B. if they abandon their efforts to find an apprenticeship for the time being or permanently and make other plans.
4. Requirements for receiving child benefit
Basic requirement is the Compliance with the age limit (normal case: 25 years). We will deal with the others in the following. In addition, child benefit is also possible in certain transitional periods or waiting periods for such training, during a voluntary service or (only for under 21-year-olds) during unemployment. These exceptions are described in the article Child benefit in transitional or waiting period.
Other requirements for receiving child benefit
a. education in the sense of child benefit
If you are over 18 years of age, your parents can receive child benefit for you in particular if and as long as you are "being trained for a profession". It does not matter whether this is your first, second or third training or further education (however, if you have already completed vocational training or a course of study, you must refer to the section on your child’s income). If you are still waiting for a place at university/training, you may also be entitled to child benefit – see the article Child benefit during a transitional period or waiting period.
It does not matter whether you are doing an in-company training, school or university training. Rather, it is sufficient if the training takes you closer to your intended goal brings your career goal a little closer, by providing you with necessary, useful or beneficial knowledge, skills and experience for the performance of the profession. In addition, it is important that you serious and determined operate.
This is determined by the fact that. B. on the fact that the attended classes or other courses for at least 10 hours per week (in certain cases, less than 10 hours are also accepted). If no attendance times are scheduled at a training facility, the seriousness of the course is usually proven by proof of the work performed. In the case of students, it is sufficient to submit semester certificates showing the university semesters.
For a profession you will z. B. then educated, if you ..
a general education school, z. B. attend a secondary school or high school, attend,
are in a job-related training relationship,
are attending a technical college or university,
you are pursuing distance learning with the necessary seriousness,
you complete a mandatory or voluntary internship or traineeship that serves your professional qualification (see also here; for voluntary internships that last longer than six months, a detailed training plan should be available),
go abroad to acquire or refresh foreign language skills (but only if the language acquisition is organized by a professional institution and not solely self-taught),
temporarily interrupt your domestic studies in order to study abroad (provided you are enrolled there as a regular student and the studies are in the same or a comparable subject area),
complete a full course of study abroad (provided you are enrolled there as a regular student and the course of study is aimed at a professional qualification),
you are doing the prescribed preparatory service as a prospective teacher or lawyer, or
are doing an internship in order to obtain state recognition in your profession.
Interrupt your training (z.B. leave of absence)
If you have to stop your education temporarily because of a illness If you interrupt your studies, this does not prevent you from receiving child benefit. However, you must submit a medical certificate stating the illness and its expected end. If the end is not foreseeable, it will be checked whether, if necessary, an. If it is possible to be considered as a disabled child, see point 5 in the article Child benefit in special cases.
If you are ill for a longer period of time, you have to submit an amts(!)submit a medical certificate or a certificate from the medical service of the health insurance company, so that the family insurance fund can decide whether you can continue to be taken into account. This report or certificate must also indicate the expected end of the illness.
If you have taken a leave of absence due to illness and you recover before the end of the semester of leave, your parents can continue to receive child benefits for you until the beginning of the following semester.
Also pregnant students, taking a leave of absence from studies can be considered as a child. For them there is during the whole semester of leave in which the birth or. in which the maternity leave period ends, child benefits, if they continue their studies to the next semester. If, on the other hand, you do not continue your studies until later, you will only be taken into account until the end of the maternity leave period.
As a rule, parents whose children take leave of absence in order to study in the Abroad to study, a internship to complete or apply for Testing to prepare. Against you do not need the child benefit entitlement, if you take a leave of absence in order to study more extensively in student committees to engage.
repeating the final examination
If you have not passed your final exam and are now preparing for the repeat exam, your parents can also receive child benefit for you for the time you are preparing for the exam. However, this only works if you register for the exam at the next possible date. In the case of students, a later examination date is only possible if the examination board explicitly advises a longer preparation period.
preparation for a doctorate
The preparation for a doctorate also counts as training, provided that it follows the successfully completed studies and is serious and sustainable. It does not matter if the profession you have chosen makes a doctorate compulsory. Even someone who is only earning a doctorate because he or she wants to improve his or her career prospects is "training for a profession".
Anyone who has a doctoral position at the university or otherwise works a job to finance the doctorate is only considered if the regular weekly working time is a maximum of 20 hours per week or if it is a mini-job. For more information, see Income of the child.
b. Income of the child
Already since 2012 the amount of the child’s income is no longer relevant for the child benefit as long as no vocational training (in the narrower sense) or first studies have been completed.
You should pay attention, however, if you ..
already a first vocational training (in the narrower sense) or a First degree completed have and
you are still or again being trained for a profession, are in a transitional period, are waiting for a training position, or are doing voluntary service.
If you belong to this group, you are excluded from child benefit if
you are regularly employed for more than 20 hours per week and
you do not earn your money within the framework of an apprenticeship or are marginally employed (mini-jobber).
If one of these two criteria does not apply to you, child benefits will continue to be paid for children who have completed their education despite being gainfully employed, provided that all other necessary requirements are met. For a temporary extension of weekly working hours beyond the 20 hours, see A 20.3.1 para. 2 in the service instruction for child benefit – DA-KG.
The question remains: When did you complete your first vocational training or first degree program?? The answer, in general terms, is that if the training or study qualifies you to take up a job (i.e. This applies z. B. Bachelor’s graduates, because Bachelor’s degree programs regularly qualify for a profession.
There is, however, an interesting ruling by the Federal Fiscal Court (BFH, ruling dated 3. September 2015, Az. VI R 9/15), which also allows for a different result if objective evidence indicates that you have not yet achieved your intended professional goal. In the meantime, the ruling has also been reflected in a circular issued by the Federal Ministry of Finance to the supreme tax authorities of the federal states.
According to this, you have, for the purposes of child benefit, despite having completed a bachelor’s degree or vocational training not yet completed a first vocational training or a first degree program, if the following conditions are met:
The further education (i.e. z. B. the master’s degree) is in a close factual connection with the completed vocational training or the completed (bachelor’s) degree program, i.e. it concerns the same occupational field or the same subject area. In the case of consecutive Master’s degree programs at a domestic university, this requirement is regularly met.
The further education (i.e. z. B. the master’s degree) is in close temporal connection carried out with the completed vocational training or the completed (bachelor’s) degree. This is the case either if you take up the further education or the master’s program at the next possible time or if you apply for it at the next possible time.
You can find more details in the BMF letter dated 8 December 2009. February 2016 read.
Important: The new regulation means that even if you already have a vocational qualification in your pocket, you may not have to comply with the 20-hour limit when working in order to receive child benefit. However, this is not a free pass in terms of jobbing for master’s students, because there is also a 20-hour limit on jobbing for health insurance purposes. So you risk at least. your student status under social security law, if you work more. Read more in the article Working student.
Example: training relationship
After his first law exam, Lars completes his preparatory service at the Court of Appeal in Berlin and receives a monthly maintenance allowance of about 1000 euros as "training allowance". His regular weekly working hours regularly exceed 30 hours. On the side, he earns a few euros with a mini-job in a law firm. Since he is still being trained for a profession and is not yet 25, his parents want to continue to receive child benefits for him.
Since Lars has completed his studies and now regularly works more than 20 hours per week, this initially speaks against a child benefit claim by the parents. Lars earns his money but within the framework of an apprenticeship relationship. This means that the extent of the gainful employment no longer plays a role. Since the mini-job is also harmless, Lars’ parents can receive child benefits for their son.
Example: Jobbing while waiting for a place at university
Simone has just completed her agricultural studies with a bachelor’s degree. Since she wants to work in the management of a larger agricultural company in the organic sector at some point in the future, she has been trying for some time to get a place on a master’s degree program that would qualify her in organic agricultural management. So far, however, she has not been successful with her applications. During the waiting period for a place at university, she works 25 hours a week in an organic market.
Under the previous legal situation, Simone could not be taken into account for child benefits because she has completed her first degree and is gainfully employed for more than 20 hours per week. With the current case law, the situation looks different for her, because Simone has not yet reached her professional goal. Rather, she wants to complete a master’s degree program that has a close factual connection to her bachelor’s degree program. She also applied for this degree program in close temporal connection with her graduation. Consequently, she has not yet completed her first degree despite having a bachelor’s degree. If Simone is still under 25, her parents can therefore receive child benefit for her during the waiting period for a place at university.
An interesting decision was made by the Federal Fiscal Court for children who are in a dual course of study are enrolled (BFH ruling of 3. July 2014, Az. III R 52/13): They have not already completed their first vocational training when they successfully complete the study-integrated practical training, but only when they complete their studies. The case decided involved a child who had completed a dual bachelor’s degree program in tax law. During his studies, he earned a degree as a tax clerk. Thereafter, it worked parallel to the study more than 20 hours per week in a tax consulting firm. It had to be clarified whether or not the child was entitled to child benefits during this period of employment while he was still studying. The Federal Fiscal Court affirmed the claim. The decision has meanwhile also been taken into account in the service instruction on child benefit. See A 19.2.2 para. 2.
Whether a claimable gainful activity exists after completion of a first vocational training or a first degree course is checked annually by the family benefits office. The form "Declaration on the circumstances of a child over 18 years of age" is available for this purpose (here as PDF).
c. Married children and children with own child
If you meet all the requirements for child benefit, you will also receive child benefit if you are married or have your own (non-marital) child. This was decided by the Federal Fiscal Court in a ruling of 17.10.2013 (Az. III R 22/13) clarified (see also press release of the BFH). The decision applies to the legal situation since 1. January 2012, that is, since the income limit no longer plays a role in the child.
5. Who gets the child benefit?
In principle, you are entitled to the child benefit as a child, provided that you still have a maintenance claim against your parents. This is usually the case with the first (or. even in the case of further) vocational training the case.
If your parents receive child benefit for you at the same time, the question arises as to whether the child benefit can be offset against child support. For this purpose there is since 1. January 2008 a clear regulation in the Civil Code (§ 1612b BGB). It follows from this that the child benefit is to be used in full to cover your cash needs, i.e. you are entitled to it.
At the same time, however, the regulation also makes it clear that you have the Child benefit not in addition to alimony can demand, but the amount reduces your cash needs. Only for the remaining amount your parents have to pay proportionally according to their income. As a result, you finance your living expenses with the child benefit and the alimony payments of your parents and your parents are relieved because a part of your needs is already covered by the child benefit.
See also the corresponding explanations in the article on the amount of parental support. What you can do if the child benefit never / rarely reaches you, is described in the following paragraph on the topic of child benefit diversion. This is also relevant if your parents are no longer liable to pay maintenance, but still receive child benefit (could).
If your parents’ income is not sufficient to fully finance your maintenance, you can probably apply for BAfoG.
Diverting" child support – forcing payment to you
Although the child benefit is intended to be paid to you, it is normally your parents who are entitled to it. The Parents must consequently also the Submitting an application for child benefit. Only one parent can receive child benefit at a time.
To ensure that the child benefit really reaches you in the end, in certain cases you can request that it be paid out directly to you (so-called "child benefit"). Branching):
if your parents do not pay you any or only irregular maintenance despite existing maintenance obligation (not only sporadically, but permanently), in any case less than according to the child benefit;
if your parents do not pay child support, but do not violate their obligation to support you because they have already financed an appropriate education for you (for more information, see the article on child support).
As almost always, there are some details to consider. This is explained in the following article, which also explains how you can apply for child benefit if your parents have not applied for it at all:
6. Apply for child benefit
The child benefit application must be submitted in writing (!) must be submitted to the relevant family benefits office. This is usually located at the employment agency. In the case of members of the public service and recipients of pensions, the employer or employer’s employer is responsible.
On the website of the employment agency child benefit application also put online. The data will be transmitted immediately, but in order for the application to be truly valid, it must still be printed out, signed and finally sent in by mail:
If you or your parents want to contact us personally, you can find the local office responsible in the local directory of family benefits offices (PDF).
The applicant (usually the parents) must also indicate their tax identification number and the tax identification number of you as the child.
Already since 1. Since January 2018, child benefit can only be claimed retroactively for the last six months.
No trivial offense: child support fraud
If it is discovered that your parents cheated child benefit If you have been infected with the virus, you will not only have to be prepared for some trouble with the family insurance fund, but you will also have to transfer back the child benefit that you have wrongly received (usually in one sum) and, if necessary, pay it back to the family insurance fund. pay a fine; it may also be that a criminal investigation due to tax evasion and, if applicable. for fraud against them is initiated.
Therefore, it is strongly advised not to take the chance – even if it is only out of pure laziness: Even if you give correct information in the application, but then z. B. does not declare a job of the child that would make the child benefit claim void or continues to receive child benefit for a child who has long since discontinued his or her education is liable to prosecution – namely by omitting a tax-relevant notification that he or she would have been obligated to make (cf. § 370 Abs. 1 no. 2 AO).
It is hardly possible to talk your way out of this by claiming that you did not know about the obligation to notify, because this is regularly referred to in the application form and in information material about child benefit. If you don’t know whether a change in circumstances will affect your child benefit entitlement, you can ask the family benefits office.
The Obligation to notify primarily affects the person who applied for or receives the child benefit. As a rule, this applies to one parent. According to § 68 Abs. 1 sentence 2 EStG is but also a child of full age obligated, at the request of the family cash office at the clarification of the facts relevant for the child benefit payment to cooperate. So you yourself are not off the hook simply because you have neither applied for the child benefit nor are the direct recipient of the benefit.
And one more thing Family insurance fund checks at certain intervals, Whether a child benefit claim still exists and the child benefit is paid out in the correct amount. In addition, you can assume that it compares personal data with other agencies, z. B. with the registration authorities or the Federal Central Tax Office.