Black holes are known to be evil objects, but how likely are you to survive if you fall into one?
There are many ways to die in space, from burning to death on Venus, to freezing to death on Mars, to exposure to space vacuum, to an asteroid crash or gamma ray bursta horrible place, and there is not much we can do to avoid either of these fates. A phenomenon, a black hole, could set the record for the "most terrifying but fascinating way to die in space." hold. Here’s a look at what happens when you first encounter a black hole and how you can survive and even thrive after such a terrifying encounter.
The gravity of the situation:
Although Einsteing himself argued against the existence of black holes, their existence was originally derived from Einstein’s formulation of what is now known as that.General relativity, one of the most important theories in the history of physics. Much of what Einstein proposed in the theory has since been confirmed by experiments, such as one that showed that the fabric of spacetime is distorted by objects with extreme gravitational fields This was originally done by observing the curvature of light during a solar eclipse. This distortion leads to our most fundamental understanding of gravity – it is the result of the distortion of space-time. The larger and denser the object, the stronger the gravitational pull.
Rendering showing the curvature around the Earth demonstrating the force of gravitySource: NASA/MSFC/Stanford University artist’s concept
General relativity also led to the prediction of black holes: infinitely dense points in space surrounded by event horizons from which nothing – not even light – can escape. Sometimes more matter accumulates around the event horizon than the black hole can hold at one time, so that everything gathers in orbit around the black hole and forms an accretion disk. Friction occurs within the disk, producing large amounts of light radiation that can be seen and measured by astronomers.
Thanks to the 2019 discovery and subsequent imaging of a black hole in M87, about 55 million light-years from Earth, science has once again shown that Einstein’s theory was on the right trackAs Einstein predicted, the Event Horizon Telescope team was able to measure the giant black hole at the core of M87. Earlier estimates suggested that it had between 3.5 billion and 7.22 billion solar masses, but it is actually closer to 6.5 billion solar masses A solar mass is the mass of the Sun, 1.989 × 10 30 kg – means that this black hole is huge by black hole standards.Its diameter is estimated at about 23.6 billion miles 38 billion kilometers!
They are breakfast, lunch, brunch, and/or dinner:
It is assumed that once an object crosses the event horizon, it is expanded apart; eventually it is decomposed into its most basic atomic composition, which raises the question: could beings dive into one and live to tell the tale, or even live permanently in one? Well, maybe . to answer this question, we need to look at different types of black holes that exist.
Black holes come in different sizes and flavors, from micro black holes to stellar-mass black holes, to intermediate-mass black holes, to supermassive black holes. Some black holes – perhaps even most or all – have spin or angular momentum and rotate at dizzying speeds, close to the speed of light
A look at how black holes rotate in different ways.Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech
The two types we want to look at more closely are, first, electrically charged black holes, which are formed by the infall of many positively charged electrons and protons and weigh billions of times more than the Sun. The second type are static, electrically neutral black holes that have about the same mass as the Sun.
In addition to the radical difference in size and mass, a stellar-mass black hole has a massively different radial distance – d. h. The distance from the event horizon to the outermost center of the object – to that of a supermassive blackFor a black hole weighing about one solar mass, its radial distance would be about 3.2 km. For an object as dense and large as the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way with a mass of about 4 millionSolar masses, its radial distance would be 7.3 million miles 11.7 million kilometers.
This distance is important to determine if you could survive your journey into a black hole. Why? Now, say you traveled to a stellar black hole and decided to dive in like a dummy. They will get too close to theObject center and as a result "The black hole’s gravitational pull on a person will increase by a factor of 1 between head and foot.000 billion differ, depending on which one is leading the free fall. In other words, if the person falls feet first as they approach the eventhorizon of a stellar-mass black hole, the gravitational pull on their feet will be exponentially greater than the pull of the black hole on their head."
An astronaut falls into a black hole and is spaghettified Source: Laura A. Whitlock, Kara C. Granger, Jane D. Mahon/Wikimedia
"The person would experience spaghettification and most likely not survive being stretched into a long, thin, noodle-like shape", according to Leo Rodriguez, assistant professor of physics at Grinnell College, and Shanshan Rodriguez, assistant professor of physics at Grinnell College,in an article published by The Conversation.
Is there a but?
Duh. I would never leave you hanging. Hypothetically, gravity is much stronger in the direction of the center of a black hole. So if you were to dive into a supermassive black hole, Rodriguez and Rodriguez both suspect that you "r each the event horizon much farther away from the central source of gravitational attraction, meaning that the difference in gravitational attraction between head and foot is nearly zero. So the person would pass the event horizon unaffected, not be stretched into a long, thin noodle, survive and float painlessly past the horizon of the black hole."
This assumes that the black hole does not have an accretion disk in which heated matter orbits the black hole and would burn you up in a second. To actually get inside one, we would need to locate a black hole that is extremely isolated fromany material that would create an accretion disk, such as stars, gas, dust, planets, etc.
As we have seen, the larger the black hole, the more likely you are to be able to survive immersion initially. The problem is that it would still have to travel at speeds above the speed of light of 300 million meters.per SECOND to reach the escape velocity of the immense gravitational pull of the black hole from its event horizon. This is impossible as we currently know. So you better make yourself comfortable. From the outside you no longer exist.
Could you live inside a black hole?
A few years ago astronomers discovered what they called an "ultramassive black hole" weighing about 40 billion solar masses per. That means it’s 40 billion times more massive than the sun. Located in a galaxy 700million light years from Earth known as Holmberg 15A which is part of the galaxy cluster Abell 85, this giant black hole is one of the most massive ever discovered. However, it is believed that there could even be black holes weighing more than 100 billion solar masses.
Theoretically, if we were to discover one of these ultramassive black holes the size of our solar system, there could be a stable partinside of the black hole, in which advanced beings could live permanently. One type of black hole – called aReissner-Nordstrom black hole – is particularly important here. Not only do they rotate, but they also have an electric charge. Some scientists postulate that it is possible for an entire planet to exist inside a black hole without becoming lunch.
This is because black holes of this size have a second boundary beyond the event horizon, a so-called "inner Cauchy horizon" – a region where things become somewhat smooth and stable comparatively. Here radiation and tidal forces are a little weak.
Of course, Stephen Hawking predicted that it is possible that black holes do not actually destroy all matter and information about particles. Instead, they can radiate energy back into the universe. As a result, black holes would eventually evaporate through this slow loss of mass. Therefore, you would need to find an eternal black hole to continue to exist safely.
A Russian astronomer was one of the first to suggest that a type II alien civilization on the Kardashev scale might have the technological capability to find one of these black holes and survive the tidal forces that would otherwise tear it apart.
In his paper, Vyacheslav Dokuchaev of the Moscow Institute of Nuclear Research and the Russian Academy of Sciences noted, "We assume that the advanced civilizations can safely live in the supermassive black holes in the galactic cores invisible from the outside."
He also adds "Life inside eternal black holes is possible in principle if these black holes are rotating or charged and massive enough to weaken tidal forces and gravitational wave radiation to an acceptable level."
Mr. Dokuchaev added: "The bare central singularity illuminates the orbiting inner planets and provides the energy supply for life support. Some additional highlighting during the night comes from eternally circulating photons."
"This internal black hole region, hidden from the entire outer universe by the two horizons, is indeed a suitable place for safe habitation."
"The only thing you need is to put your vehicle or planet into a stable periodic orbit in the black hole.
"Nevertheless there are some difficulties or advantages? of a life in black holes worth mentioning, like a possible causality violation and the growing energy density near the Cauchy horizon."
In principle, it might be theoretically possible but probably not very likely to survive a trip into a massive black hole, and some scientists predict that some forms of extraterrestrial life might even live within the Cauchy horizon. But you should say goodbye to all you know and love, because this move is permanent.