World of topics stroke

Every year, up to 260 people suffer.000 people in Germany have a stroke / apoplexy, about 200.000 of them are first time strokes. Strokes are the third most common cause of death in Germany. (1) It usually occurs suddenly and can have severe as well as long-term consequences. What are causes and possible consequences of a stroke? How it is diagnosed and what treatment options stroke patients have? gives a detailed overview in this topic world.

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Stroke& Consequences: Lighter, heavier& silent stroke

Table of contents

Stroke / Apoplexy: Definition

Whether "cerebral stroke", "cerebral infarction", "apoplexy" or "stroke" – all terms mean the same thing: In case of a Stroke brain functions. There are two possible triggers for this: either a circulatory disorder or a cerebral hemorrhage. Both are grouped under the umbrella term stroke.

Two causes of stroke

The failures in a stroke occur due to an acute undersupply of parts of the brain with blood and thus oxygen. A stroke can have two possible causes:

  1. A circulatory disturbance in the brain
  2. A cerebral hemorrhage

In a councellor informed about how you can prevent a stroke.

Two types of stroke

There are basically two types of stroke: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.

Ischemic stroke with circulatory disturbance

Cause of an ischemic stroke

In most cases solve Circulatory disturbances of strokes in the brain (ischemic Stroke). A circulatory disturbance occurs because of a blood clot or because of hardening of the arteries (technically known as arteriosclerosis). Vascular occlusion in the brain can occur due to changes in small vessels in the brain, narrowing of vessels supplying the brain or atrial fibrillation in the heart. As a result, some areas of the brain are insufficiently supplied with oxygen. Strokes due to a lack of blood supply account for about 80 percent of all strokes.

Hemorrhagic stroke caused by cerebral hemorrhage

Around 20 percent of all strokes are caused by brain hemorrhages caused (Hemorrhagic stroke), for example as a result of high blood pressure or the use of blood-thinning medication. A cerebral hemorrhage directly damages the part of the brain it affects. The hemorrhage can also press on healthy brain tissue and damage it.

Stroke severity levels

Strokes are classified according to three degrees of severity:

  1. Mild / minor stroke
  2. Silent / silent stroke
  3. Severe stroke

Mild stroke / mini-stroke / TIA stroke

When the symptoms of a stroke within 24 hours disappear again, there is possibly a temporary disturbance of the blood circulation. In this case, physicians speak of a transient ischemic attack (TIA for short).

Mild stroke with consequences?

A TIA is also a stroke, which usually requires treatment in the stroke unit. In most cases of TIA apoplexy, only a shorter hospital stay is necessary, but often the lifelong use of blood thinners is required to reduce the risk of a severe stroke. Any transient TIA apoplexy can also be the harbinger of a major, or severe, stroke. Pay particular attention to slight limitations such as visual disturbances or a brief tingling sensation in the arm or leg. In any case, a doctor should be notified as soon as possible.

Silent / mute stroke: unnoticed stroke

Depending on where a transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs in the brain, the consequences are sometimes noticeable, sometimes not. In fact, even seemingly perfectly healthy people may have already suffered a stroke, although they have not shown any symptoms. Or the symptoms were there, but disappeared again after a short time.

A silent stroke is also caused by a circulatory disorder in the brain – the only difference being that the circulatory disorder affects inconspicuous areas of the brain and the cells in these areas die. If the affected area of the brain is not responsible for speaking or walking, no typical symptoms occur and the damage initially remains unnoticed.

A silent, unnoticed stroke can only be detected with the help of imaging procedures such as a CT scan or MRI. Clear stroke signs (whether circulatory disturbance or cerebral hemorrhage) continue to show up in these procedures long after the stroke has occurred. (2)

First a small cerebral infarction, then a severe stroke

More than 20 percent of people who have had a minor stroke also have a major stroke within the following year. Therefore, it is helpful to sensitize your environment for possible symptoms and to use tools such as a mobile emergency call, so that you yourself or relatives can quickly alert help in case of emergency.

Severe stroke

In a severe stroke, larger and more importantly relevant areas of the brain are partially or completely cut off by the blood flow disturbance. Many brain cells die, the consequences are serious and are usually manifested in paralysis and disorders that sometimes can no longer be reversed.

Stroke: age& Statistics

Although old age is one of the risk factors for stroke, younger people and children in the womb can also suffer a stroke.

Juvenile stroke: Apoplexy in young people

Having a stroke in your 20s, 30s or 40s is not at all uncommon. The symptoms of a stroke in young people (also called juvenile stroke) are not different from those of older people. The symptoms differ rather according to the type and severity of the apoplexy. Every year, up to 30 people suffer a stroke.000 people under the age of 50 in Germany suffer a so-called juvenile stroke. (3)

Christian Sab, M.D

Certain diseases can increase the risk of stroke even at a young age

Young people are also increasingly suffering from conditions associated with an increased risk of stroke, such as nicotine addiction, hypertension and dyslipidemia.

Stroke consequences& Symptoms

A stroke usually occurs suddenly – therefore there are rarely any precursors indicating a stroke. Depending on the part of the brain affected, the symptoms of a stroke can vary greatly. Serious physical and cognitive damage can result.

The consequences of a stroke are mostly unilateral changes: Unilateral paralysis of the arm or hand, leg or foot, or face. Speech, language or visual disturbances may also be present.

A guidebook provides information on about the stroke symptoms and signs and gives tips on how to recognize them.

Consequences of stroke: differences according to the affected brain region

When brain tissue suddenly receives little or no blood supply, it also receives less or no oxygen and nutrients. As a result, cells in the brain die and permanent damage occurs. Around 70 percent of stroke patients suffer from long-term consequences such as speech disorders or hemiplegia.

The symptoms or consequences of a stroke depend on the affected brain region. The following table gives an overview.

  • Orientation disorders
  • Restrictions in spatial perception
  • Personality changes, for example, depression.
  • attention deficit disorder or. neglect of one half of the body (so-called neglect)
  • Hemiplegia symptoms
  • Speech disorders
  • Loss of speech (called aphasia)
  • Hemiplegia
  • Coordination disorders
  • Balance disorders
  • Tremors
  • Speech disorders
  • Visual disturbances
  • Impaired consciousness
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting
  • Uncontrolled movements
  • paralysis of the arm and leg
  • Speech / swallowing disorders

stroke on the right side / stroke on the left side: Consequences

In cerebral strokes, the type of deficits depends on the affected hemisphere of the brain. Because the nerves cross each other on the way from the cerebrum to the body, the symptoms usually appear on the opposite side of the body:

  • A tingling sensation in the left hand can indicate a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain.
  • If the right side is paralyzed after the stroke, the apoplexy happened in the left side of the brain.

In addition, a stroke in the right or left hemisphere of the brain causes typical consequences in addition to a crossed paralysis:

consequences of a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain

In the case of a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain, there are, among other things, orientation disorders and restrictions in spatial perception. It can also lead to personality changes, for example depression. Also the so-called "neglect", the neglect of one half of the body, can be a consequence of a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain, because perception is disturbed. Affected persons no longer perceive one side of their body and their environment correctly.

Consequences of a stroke in the left hemisphere of the brain

In the case of a stroke in the left side of the brain, speech disorders or loss of speech can occur, among other things, because in most people the speech center is located in the left side of the brain.

Typical consequences of a stroke& possible complications

Depending on the severity and location of the circulatory disturbance or hemorrhage in the brain, the symptoms and consequences of a stroke can vary greatly. A stroke or apoplexy is sometimes followed by no, sometimes by very severe limitations. Sometimes it is only a temporary mild facial paralysis (the drooping corner of the mouth), but sometimes an entire side of the body remains numb, speech is limited or even completely lost.

Despite these differences, the following "typical" consequences of a stroke can be noted: (4)

  • Speech disorders, swallowing disorders and disorders in food intake
    After a stroke, 70 percent of those affected experience disturbances in speaking, eating and drinking, chewing and swallowing (dysphagia). Sometimes the disorders are so severe that the affected person is dependent on outside help and special foods such as sip feedings.
  • symptoms of paralysis
    A frequent consequence of severe strokes is also paralysis, for example of the face or one side of the body.
  • Attention disorders
    Attention disorders are also common, for example lack of concentration.
  • Memory disorders (not to be confused with dementia)
  • Disturbances of sensory perception
    After a stroke, some patients can no longer distinguish between cold and warm stimuli, for example.
  • Embolism, pneumonia and thrombosis after stroke
    Severe strokes can lead to further complications: Embolism and pneumonia, thrombosis (in the leg and pelvic veins), and also urinary tract infections.
  • Weak immune system
    The body and the immune system of the stroke patient are severely weakened after an apoplexy. Even harmless infections can quickly become dangerous.

Paralysis& Epilepsy after stroke

Two particular apoplexy consequences are epilepsy and paralysis after a stroke:

  1. Paralysis after stroke / hemiparesis
    Paralysis, for example the typical incomplete hemiparesis, is a frequent consequence of strokes. For example, the left arm or leg can be paralyzed – the physician then speaks of "apoplexy with left hemiparesis". Sometimes these paralyses are only partially reversed even under therapy and rehabilitation, spasticity remains with a sometimes painful increase in muscle tone. Almost half of all stroke victims suffer permanent limitations and need for care after the stroke.
  2. Epilepsy after stroke
    In fact, a stroke can also trigger epilepsy. Because a stroke causes scarring in the brain, which can trigger epileptic seizures.

Christian Sab, M.D

An epileptic seizure in a stroke does not automatically develop into permanent epilepsy

If epileptic seizures occur during a stroke, this does not necessarily mean that permanent epilepsy will develop. The doctor should be informed about this in any case. The risk of further epileptic seizures determines whether permanent medication is necessary.

Personality changes after stroke

Under certain circumstances, a stroke can also have an effect on the personality of the person affected. Not to mention possible psychological consequences of apoplexy, such as fear of having another stroke. The mental state after an apoplexy can be influenced by different factors. Changes in character after a stroke are often the result if the brain regions of the frontal and temporal lobes have been damaged.

Basically, there are two opposite mood directions depending on the affected lobe: (5)

Syndrome Affected lobe Possible changes in character / mood
Minus syndrome Temporal lobe (temporal lobe) Listlessness, lack of interest, lack of participation, lack of emotion
Plus syndrome Right and left frontal lobe (frontal lobe) Aggressiveness, strong distrust, irritability, impulsivity

Stroke: Test& Diagnosis

Since a stroke does not always have to be accompanied by typical symptoms, it is not always immediately recognizable as such for laypersons and those affected. Nevertheless, it is very important to grasp the emergency situation as quickly as possible and call for help. Therefore, if you have the slightest suspicion, call for medical help immediately by dialing 112.

In the hospital, the goal is to identify the cause as quickly as possible and find out if the stroke was caused by a blood flow problem or bleeding in the brain. Because only if the cause is clear, the stroke can be treated quickly and effectively. In a guidebook informs about the tests and diagnosis in case of stroke.

therapy, rehab& Treatment of a stroke

Stroke patients who receive care within the first few hours after the stroke have the greatest chance of a good treatment outcome with a low level of impairment.

Depending on the cause of the stroke

  • drug treatment: To dissolve the circulatory disorder (so-called thrombolysis, also lysis therapy).
  • surgery: Either to stop the bleeding in the brain and drain blood, or a catheter-based procedure to reopen the blocked vessel (called a thrombectomy)

A guidebook provides information on care.The following information is provided on the options for stroke treatment, rehabilitation, and Therapy.

Emergency call systems as safety in case of recurrent strokes

The risk of a new stroke is particularly high in the first 12 months after a stroke. In order to alert help quickly in an emergency and to gain valuable time, emergency call systems have proven themselves, which affected persons can wear on their wrist around the clock.

Resilience and care after a stroke

Unfortunately, the consequences of a stroke cannot always be reduced to such an extent that the affected persons can continue their lives almost without restriction. In about two-thirds of all cases, physical damage remains, often also an at least temporary need for care in the sense of the Care Insurance Act (§ 14 SGB XI).

Care level / care degree after stroke

The decisive criterion for assessing the need for care or for classification into a care level (former care levels) is: How independent is the affected person in his daily life and what abilities are still available?

Frequent consequences and symptoms of a stroke are partial paralysis of the arms or legs, visual disturbances, speech disturbances or also forgetfulness as well as orientation problems. Accordingly, after a stroke, people may be more or less restricted in their daily life.

As a rule of thumb in the classification into one of the five degrees of care: The higher the need for support in everyday life, the higher the degree of care.

Depending on the severity of a stroke, different types of damage can occur. If the affected person is dependent on outside assistance in his or her daily life after the stroke, he or she could possibly be entitled to long-term care insurance benefits. Basic requirement for this is a recognized care degree. With the free care degree calculator from you can calculate the expected degree of care.

Care measures after stroke: care, place, remodeling& Aids

After a stroke into the nursing home? It may be one possibility, but it is certainly not the only one. Even during rehab or even while still in the hospital, sufferers and their families can contact social services or care transitions. It is important to clarify how best to proceed now:

  • Can sufficient outpatient support be arranged so that the affected person can remain living at home?
  • Can relatives or friends and neighbors help with daily care or can additional hourly care be added?
  • Smaller renovation measures may be enough to make the home and bathroom barrier-free?
  • Can assistive devices help to restore or promote the stroke patient’s independence??

Seek help

The care for or after a stroke can be complex, for example, due to massive limitations. But psychological changes (such as depression) can also make living together more difficult. Here the rule is: think about it together, get help and shape the process together. This also means that everyone involved must be aware of the topic of stroke and not be afraid to seek help, for example, in a nursing course or at the stroke service point of the Berlin Stroke Alliance.

Life expectancy / prognosis after stroke

After heart disease and cancer, stroke is the third most common cause of death in Germany. (1)

Results of a recent study (as of 2020) by the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and the University of Wurzburg show that nearly one in two stroke patients will die within the next five years after their first stroke. For every fifth stroke patient, another stroke follows within the next five years. The cause of the stroke and how quickly it was recognized or treated is decisive for the prognosis of a stroke or the remaining lifespan until death. (6)

Frequently asked questions

What is a stroke? Simply explained!

A stroke is a sudden loss of blood flow to the brain (ischemic stroke) or bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). In about 80 percent of all stroke patients, there is a sudden circulatory disturbance in the brain. Depending on the area, a different function may be affected. Around 70 percent of stroke patients suffer long-term consequences such as speech disorders or hemiplegia.

What is an apoplexy??

An apoplexy is the medical term for stroke.

What happens after a stroke?

In 80 percent of all strokes, a blood vessel in the brain is blocked by a blood clot. As a result, the brain tissue is only supplied with a small amount of blood or none at all. In these cases, less or no oxygen reaches the brain, causing the affected cells in the brain to die off.

What types of stroke are there??

There are two types of stroke:

  1. The ischemic stroke
  2. the hemorrhagic stroke

What is an ischemic stroke??

An ischemic stroke occurs in 80 percent of all strokes and is the result of a circulatory disorder of the brain.

What is a hemorrhagic stroke?

A hemorrhagic stroke occurs in 20 percent of all strokes and is the result of bleeding into the brain.

What is a cerebral infarction?

A cerebral infarction (also brain stroke) is another word for ischemic stroke. In this case, the cause is a circulatory disorder of the brain due to arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

What is a cerebral stroke?

A cerebral stroke (also brain attack) is another word for ischemic stroke. In this case, the cause is impaired blood flow to the brain due to arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

What is a cerebral hemorrhage?

A cerebral hemorrhage is another word for hemorrhagic stroke. Here the cause is a hemorrhage into the brain.

What is a silent/ silent stroke??

A silent stroke is hardly or not at all noticed by the affected person. This can be the case, for example, if the stroke hits an area of the brain where no critical functions (such as speech or vision) are located.

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"Age per se is a risk factor for stroke"

Prof. Dr. med. Wolf-Rudiger Schabitz is press spokesman for the German Stroke Society and heads the Department of Neurology at the Protestant Hospital in Bielefeld, Germany.

Is stroke really a typical disease of old age?? If so, how can one best protect oneself from it in order to keep one’s own risk of stroke as low as possible?? And if you are affected by a stroke – what are the chances of treatment?? spoke in an interview with Prof. Dr. med. Wolf-Rudiger Schabitz of the German Stroke Society.

Dear Mr. Schabitz. How would you explain a stroke to a 10-year-old child or a 90-year-old person? So as simple and understandable as possible.

A stroke is, so to speak, a circulatory disorder of the brain with the consequence that the function of the areas of the brain that are not properly supplied with blood is disturbed. This dysfunction in turn leads to symptoms such as paralysis, visual disturbances, speech disorders, etc. – the typical consequences of a stroke.

Stroke is often counted among the most common diseases in old age. But is it really a typical disease of old age?? A stroke also affects young people.

Yes, one can already say that a stroke occurs more frequently at an advanced age. More than 50 percent of strokes affect people over the age of 65, while around 15 percent affect people under the age of 40/45. So not so few people who already suffer a stroke at a young age.

What are the typical risk factors for a stroke??

The main risk factors for stroke are high blood pressure and the sog. Atrial fibrillation. Other stroke risk factors that are less severe but still relevant are diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, and dyslipidemia. As I said, the risk of stroke increases with age. If someone is older than 70 years, his risk is higher than for a person with 60 years of age. At the age of 80 the risk is again higher than at 70 etc. The age per se is already a risk factor for a stroke.

Ok, so that means: which group of people has the highest risk of stroke?

An older person aged 70 or older with high blood pressure and diabetes and who smokes has a higher risk of stroke than a young person who eats a healthy diet, gets enough exercise, doesn’t smoke and has no other risk factors.

There sounds already out that a healthy nutrition and much movement are a good prevention of a stroke. What are your personal practical tips for preventing a stroke??

Ultimately, the best tips for preventing a stroke are always to avoid risk factors. That is, measures that effectively prevent and prevent high blood pressure, obesity, lack of exercise and ultimately diabetes. The avoidance of these factors and a generally healthy lifestyle are therefore the best prevention.

As a first step, this includes eating a sensible diet, d. h. a balanced, well-balanced z. B. Mediterranean diet to itself leads. So mainly vegetables, not too much meat, not too much alcohol. Alcohol is not completely forbidden, but only in very small quantities. And of course, adequate exercise is very important. 20 to 30 minutes of exercise per day, where you sweat easily, is ideal. And if risk factors such as diabetes or high blood pressure are present, these should of course also be treated. These are the main rules for the prevention of a stroke.

You are a member of the German Stroke Society, which offers a stroke risk test on its site. This is intended to enable people to assess their personal risk of stroke. Do you personally recommend such tests?

German Stroke Society

Prof. Dr. med. Schabitz is press spokesman for the German Stroke Society

Yes, we strongly recommend this self-test. You know, these tests are a kind of screening. They don’t replace a medical examination, but someone who z. B. has a family history of stroke, perhaps even has one or two risk factors, and is getting older, such a test is an opportunity for them. If the test is conspicuous, it should always go to the doctor and then risk factors can be checked at an early stage and appropriate treatment initiated. I therefore see such a test as an opportunity for everyone and thoroughly recommend it.

Which doctor should I see to find out if I am at risk of stroke??

If you have an acute stroke, you must always call the ambulance or the ambulance service immediately. Call the emergency doctor (112). But when it comes to assessing the possible risk, the first way to go is to the general practitioner. He does the risk evaluation and examines whether there is a risk of stroke. have high blood pressure, diabetes or, for example, a heart rhythm disorder. The general practitioner will then – if necessary – also arrange for further examinations, e.g., for a check-up. B. An ultrasound of the brain supply or a cardiology exam and makes appropriate referrals for specialists.

A stroke is not always immediately noticeable as an acute stroke. Sometimes there are the so-called. "silent strokes", which are not recognized as such either by the affected person or by those around them. How can you explain that medically, that you don’t notice anything about it at all?

It is already the case that even the silent strokes – or as we say "silent strokes" – show mildly pronounced symptoms. However, these symptoms are often not evaluated as stroke symptoms, so they remain "silent". This can include z. B. sometimes a short dizziness or a tingling sensation. It can also be a headache or when the hand wobbles a little while reading the newspaper.

The fact that a "silent stroke" does not cause any symptoms at all is rather seldom the case. Most of the time the symptoms are simply not noticed, because silent strokes are usually minor strokes that ultimately do not cause any functional disturbance. This means that silent strokes are, in principle, more benign than severe strokes.

This means that "silent strokes" then affect brain areas that do not have as important functions as other areas and the functional disturbances are therefore not as serious?

Exactly like this.

How many strokes remain undetected or. "silent" or "mute?

There are not really reliable data due to the fact that affected people do not notice the symptoms and therefore do not go to the doctor and are not examined.

But I assume that this must be a low, double-digit percentage, maybe 15 percent. But whether there are that many is ultimately just a guess.

In addition to silent strokes, there are also severe strokes, which show severe and typical symptoms. In your experience, what are the five typical symptoms that are fairly certain to indicate a stroke??

  1. A paralysis, z. B. of the arms or legs.
  2. A speech disorder, i.e. when the patient can no longer repeat simple sentences such as "It’s raining today".
  3. A unilateral paralysis of the face such as a drooping corner of the mouth. If you have z. B. sees tea coming out of one side of my mouth or something.
  4. Sensitivity disorders such as. B. a tingling sensation in the arm or leg.
  5. Coordination disorders, which can also be seen in the gait o. a. Show.

Can a stroke also occur during sleep at night?

Yes, it happens quite often. Stroke often occurs in the early morning hours, this is simply related to circadian rhythms (note. d. R.: sleep-wake rhythm) and that there is simply.

Now to the topic of first aid for stroke: What is the most important thing I can do if a person in my family, circle of friends or environment suffers a stroke and I recognize such a stroke?? How to react correctly in an emergency?

They call 112 immediately. The most important thing is that EMS is alerted and help arrives as soon as possible. It is best to communicate your suspicion of a stroke already on the phone.

And what can I do in the time until the ambulance arrives?? As far as I know, you should not give the patient anything to drink or eat, you should encourage him or her, and you should never elevate his or her legs.

Yes, but all this is actually secondary. You can of course reassure the person and make sure they don’t fall if they have a gait disorder. But these are all common sense things. The most important thing is to activate the rescue system at a great distance from all other measures. The bottom line is that there are no specific, important, or essential actions that can or must then be performed until the EMS arrives.

How helpful is it for patients to be admitted to specialized stroke units in hospitals after a stroke?? What are the advantages of such units??

The first aid in a stroke unit is essential. In Germany, the majority – I don’t want to say all – of stroke patients are treated in stroke units. Over the last few years, treatment expertise has developed in this area, so that strokes in such units are treated better than z. B. in hospitals that do not have them or in other departments or internal medicine clinics. In stroke units, the diagnostic and therapeutic expertise is very high and therefore the experts can assess whether in the individual case z. B. a special therapy is possible and necessary like z. B. A lysis therapy or a catether-based sog. Thrombectomy. With this procedure, the blood clot blocking the cerebral vessel can be removed.

Not only is acute therapy started on these stroke units, but cardiovascular monitoring is also performed in the following days. After acute therapy, the focus is on finding the cause of the stroke. This is important, of course, so that the patient can be treated effectively and not have another stroke in the near future.

When a patient is admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of stroke: What is examined as a standard procedure and what measures are initiated for each patient?

Cardiovascular monitoring is always done, where heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure are observed. In addition, of course, all stroke patients are examined using imaging techniques such as MRI and CT to examine the vessels supplying the brain in order to clarify the type and extent of the stroke. If a stroke is not caused by a circulatory disorder (so-called thromboembolism), it can be treated. ischemic stroke) but was caused by a cerebral hemorrhage, the investigative measures are at the discretion of the attending physician.

When do you have a better chance of a good stroke therapy?? In case of an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke?

Thanks to the new procedure of thrombectomy, the chances of treatment after an ischemic stroke are better.

What was the greatest treatment success of a patient you have ever experienced?

In the field of thrombectomy, there are actually healing successes that can border on miracle cures: There are cases in which the patient comes to the hospital with a severe paralysis and has no more limitations at discharge one week later – if he was brought to the hospital quickly after the stroke. This is not at all rare and of course a huge success of the medical therapy. Such treatment successes occur more and more frequently since the establishment of thrombectomy, but they are only possible in ischemic strokes.

To what extent does a high level of patient motivation play a role in treatment and rehabilitation after a stroke??

Of course, this plays a big role because the success of the therapy depends on the patient’s participation. According to clinical experience, the more motivated the patient is and the more optimistic he or she is about the matter, the better are the rehabilitation successes and regressions of neurological symptoms or. their deficits.

So would you say a good motivation and a strong own will is very important to minimize the consequences after a stroke and to treat well?

The consequences of a stroke always depend on the type and extent of the stroke. From your professional experience, what are the most frequent consequences of a stroke??

The most severe impairments after a stroke result from severe paralysis and speech disorders. These are the main symptoms that determine the further course of the stroke.

And, of course, there are other symptoms that do not necessarily have anything to do with the initial stroke symptoms, but which can develop in the course of the stroke and are not at all rare. These are, for example, depressions or cognitive disorders, which can then cause problems in everyday functionality.

Due to the consequences of a stroke, many people are dependent on support or care after a stroke. What is the best way to organize things in the family when my relative is discharged after a stroke??

It depends on the severity of the stroke. If it was only a mild stroke or one where regression is possible, then it may not change much at all and the person can return to their home normally. If it was a severe stroke, then more support or care may already have to be organized. Sometimes you also have to consider whether the patient can live at home again or has to be cared for in an institution.

Most of the time, as a family member in such a case, you have a little more time for this organization, because patients with a severe stroke usually still go to rehab after the acute therapy. And then, at best, one should also wait for the rehab to see how the patient’s condition develops and improves.

This means that it is advisable to wait until rehab before organizing care?

This cannot be said in general, because it depends essentially on the extent and type of stroke. In the case of mild strokes, one should wait for rehabilitation, in the case of a very severe stroke, one should inform oneself beforehand on care portals and organize care, because one usually knows that the patient will no longer be able to live alone in his home.

How great is the risk of sufferers having another stroke after the first stroke? According to statistics, of the 270.000 strokes per year around 70.000 repeat strokes.

Yes, there are a number of recurrent strokes (note. d. R.(repeated strokes) and the number is around 50.000 to 70.000 per year. It is not true that every patient suffers a second stroke after a first stroke, because this essentially depends on the patient’s individual situation. However, it is also because of this high risk of recurrence that it is so important to investigate the exact causes after the first stroke in order to be able to build up a good secondary prevention. I must say, however, that not every patient is diagnosed with a cause, and it is precisely in these patients that the recurrence rate is increased, because in this sense it is not possible to eliminate risk factors if they are not known.

On the other hand, there are also patients for whom no cause is found, although they are carefully examined, and whose risk potential is nevertheless very low. Either way, you can’t tell a patient "I guarantee you won’t have another stroke".

What advice do you give these patients to prevent a recurrent stroke?

The same preventive measures apply as before first-ever strokes. The deciding factors are simply a healthy diet, enough exercise, no diabetes, no high blood pressure, etc. A stroke doesn’t usually affect the fit 60- or 70-year-olds who have no risk factor, but the others.

What is the life expectancy of patients after a first stroke?? How many people die within the first year after stroke?

The mortality of patients after a first stroke is 25 to 30 percent. However, this only applies to the subgroup of very severe strokes. After all, these are patients who have severe paralysis, severe speech disorders, severe visual disturbances and who are usually bedridden and in need of severe care after the first stroke. Of these serious cases, a very high number die within the first year. In addition to the consequences of a stroke, such patients often suffer from complications such as diabetes. B. Pneumonia, lung infections, on.

Basically, the immune system is weakened after the first stroke, therefore patients after a first stroke are altogether more susceptible to infections and the like.

Finally, a look into the future: What is happening in the field of early detection of stroke? What will be possible in the future? What are the current exciting trends from stroke research??

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