Information collection on the scientific essay

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Academic ghostwriting is especially popular for essays. Thus, it is not uncommon for students to hire ghostwriters to assist them with their essay writing process. Contrary to the assumption that it is only students who use ghostwriting services, lecturers and professors form a large part of the clientele of academic ghostwriting agencies.

The scientific essay represents a common study and examination performance at academic educational institutions, which is provided in the form of a thematic and seminar-related written essay of varying scope. The essay is recognized as an ECTS-assessed module achievement in undergraduate studies (bachelor’s, diploma or master’s degree programs) as well as in consecutive master’s degree programs.

Science essays

In contrast to the feuilletonistic essay as a journalistic genre, the science essay is characterized by concise scientific argumentation and a technical style of presentation. The opinion-based interpretation typical of the essay style always requires methodological justification in the academic essay.

The academic essay does not represent a firmly delineated text type and, viewed internationally and subject-specifically, exhibits considerable variation in terms of content and form. In general, however, there are parallels to the format requirements for academic term papers and term papers in terms of the basic formal requirements for writing an essay.

The diverse context of use of the academic essay ranges from the examination part performance in the undergraduate studies to the proof of qualification for applications for the university master’s program, by the relevance of which students like to use academic ghostwriters for their essay.

Essay as academic examination performance

The scientific essay as a study and examination performance is recognized at European universities as well as in the Anglo-American area as a performance requirement in undergraduate studies as well as in consecutive master’s degree programs. In the ECTS evaluation system, the essay is ranked as an independent part of examination performance on an equal footing with the written examination and the presentation (between three and five ECTS points).

Depending on the university, the type of university and the course of study, the essay can also be assessed as a substitute for equivalent or similar course work such as a literature report (literature review), expose, review or annotated bibliography. Conversely, performance requirements such as the term paper can also be replaced by lecturers with a longer essay or two short essays that are equivalent in their overall scope to a fully-fledged term paper or seminar paper.

Content requirements. The scientific standard of the essay

The academic essay is characterized by a free handling of a topic of a scientifically defined problem area. In addition to the requirement of an independent (critical) treatment of the problem and a recognizably justified line of argumentation, the essay as an examination performance must show an argumentative style of presentation.

Contrary to a widespread misunderstanding, the opinion-based (subjective) interpretation typical of the essay as a whole does not result in a license for essayistic, i.e. methodologically and terminologically vague, argumentation within the academic context of use.

The standard assessment criteria for essays at colleges and universities include concise scientific argumentation, a scientific style of presentation and a methodologically well-founded approach. Students of all disciplines demonstrate with the subject essay that they can systematically classify a precisely justified question in a scientific problem field, productively or in a self-developed way. be able to apply critically and develop in a coherent argumentation context. The evaluation of the innovative, original approach to the topic therefore has a higher value in the evaluation scale than aspects such as completeness or depth of detailed knowledge.

Types and scope

Since the essay is firmly established in both European and Anglo-American higher education as an examination performance and examination prerequisite, the usual academic quality standards, such as uniform subject-specific terminology and scientifically correct handling of the sources used, also apply to it in formal terms, irrespective of the type of course (Bachelor’s, Master’s, or Diplom).

These requirements also apply regardless of the type of essay, which can vary greatly from course to course and subject to subject, as well as from university to university.

Whereas essays in the humanities are often equivalent to term papers or seminar papers with a length of between three and a maximum of twelve pages (5 to 8 pages as an average value for the actual or seminar paper), essays in the humanities are often equivalent to term papers or seminar papers with a length of between three and a maximum of twelve pages (5 to 8 pages as an average value for the actual or seminar paper). In the natural sciences, the length requirements for the scientific essay range from three to a maximum of five pages (short essay).

Formal requirements and design

Formally, the essay stands out in comparison to the scientific term paper or seminar paper due to the missing table of contents at the beginning, the reduced footnote apparatus and the relatively minor source integration (notes). References are to be listed separately in an attached bibliography. Likewise, the academic rules of citation are to be observed as in other scientific papers.

In essays in the humanities, subheadings are not usually used to organize the argument. In short essays in the natural sciences and economics, in addition to the recommended structuring of the essay into sensible paragraphs, the procedure of marking sense units by graphically highlighted subheadings (bold print or italics) in the continuous text has meanwhile become established.

Essay structure

For both the extended essay and the short essay, the following formal criteria for design and structure have been established in detail across universities and programs of study:

Text part
-Main body with subheadings
-Concluding section with conclusion

-bibliography, references
-Declaration of independence (sworn statement)

Areas of use

The academic essay can be the described regular examination performance in undergraduate studies as well as part of application documents for universities offering a master’s program. In this case, the essay complements the evidence of appropriate completed university studies or. Bachelor’s degree, for example in business administration as a three-page essay in the form of a management summary for a selected topic.

Likewise, the study and examination performance essay is often used subject-related as an exemplary test for a thematic investigation approach, which is then further developed in the consecutive master’s program or in the context of a dissertation project (here especially in the form of the expose).

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