Permanent make-up – wikipedia

Permanent make-up - wikipedia

Permanent make-up Is a cosmetic technique that uses tattoos (permanent pigmentation of the dermis) to create makeup-like designs, such as. It is also used to create artificial eyebrows, especially in people who have lost them due to age, disease such as alopecia totalis, chemotherapy, or a genetic disorder, and to replace scars and white patches in the skin such as z vitiligo. It is also used to restore or enhance the areola of the breast, for example after breast surgery.

Most often mentioned Permanent cosmetics, other names include Dermapigmentation, Micropigmentation, and cosmetic tattooing, [1] The latter is most appropriate, as permanent makeup is applied under sterile conditions similar to those of a tattoo. [2] In the United States, inks used in permanent makeup are subject to approval as cosmetics by the Food and Drug Administration. The pigments used in the inks are color additives that are subject to premarket approval under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. [3] However, due to other competing public health priorities in the United States and a previous lack of evidence of safety issues specifically associated with these pigments, the FDA has not traditionally exercised regulatory authority over color additives for the pigments used in tattoo inks. [4]

Table of Contents

History[ edit]

The first documented permanent makeup treatment was performed by the famous British tattoo artist Sutherland MacDonald . performed [5] in 1902 in his salon, #76 Jermyn Str., London, "year-round pale pink complexion" on the cheeks. In the 1920s, this "London fad" crossed the Atlantic, and the "electrically tattooed" [sic?] a permanent complexion or blush on the face" became popular in the U.S. Tattoo artist George Burchett, a major developer of the technique when it came into vogue in the 1930s, described in his memoirs how beauty salons tattooed many women without their knowledge and offered it as a "complexion treatment … by injecting vegetable dyes under the top layer of skin". [6] [7]

Results[ edit ]

Long-term results [ edit ]

The best possible color results can work for many years or fade with time. The time needed for this depends on the person. While the permanent makeup pigment remains in the dermis, its beauty span can be affected by several possible factors, including environmental, procedural and/or individual factors. [8] sunlight fades the color. The amount and color of pigment deposition at the dermal level can affect the length of time permanent makeup looks best. For this reason, very natural looking applications will likely need to be touched up before more dramatic ones. Individual influences are lifestyles that find a person in the sun on a regular basis, such as gardening or swimming. Skin tones are a factor in color value changes over time.

Imperfections [ edit ]

There are cases of undesirable results. [9]

Distance[ edit ]

As with tattoos, permanent make-up can be difficult to remove. Common techniques are laser resurfacing, dermabrasion (physical or chemical peeling) and surgical removal. [ citation needed ]

Side effects and complications[ edit]

As with tattoos, permanent makeup can cause complications such as migration, allergies to the pigments, formation of scars, granulomas and keloids, skin tears, peeling, blistering and local infections. [10] The use of unsterilized tattoo instruments can infect the patient with serious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Due to the patient’s dissatisfaction or regret, removal problems may also occur, and they may be particularly difficult to remove from areas such as the eyelids and lips without leaving permanent consequences. A person considering undergoing cosmetic tattooing should insist on adherence to "standard precautions" and a uniform code of conduct. [11] [12]

It is important that technicians use proper personal protective equipment to protect the health of the technician and the client, especially in preventing the transmission of bloodborne pathogens. [13]

It is also important that technicians have been properly trained in applying pigment to the skin to avoid migration. Tattoo pigment can "migrate" when a technician "reworks" an area, especially around the eyes, where the pigment can "bleed" into the surrounding tissue. Migration is generally avoidable by not overstressing the swollen tissue. Understanding the need to minimize puffiness and identify a good stopping point is paramount to successful application. Removing migrated pigment is a difficult and complicated process.

In very rare cases, people with permanent makeup have reported swelling or burning in the affected areas when undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. [14] However, a detailed review of cases in the medical literature on cosmetic tattoos shows that in most cases, poor quality pigments, pigments adulterated with heavy metals, and pigments with diamagnetic properties were the causative factors. [15] [16]

Topical anesthetics are often used by technicians before cosmetic tattooing, and there is a possibility of side effects if topical anesthetics are not used safely. In 2013, the international industry association a detailed position and general safety precautions for the entire industry. [17]

The causes of a color change after a cosmetic tattoo are complex and varied. As discussed in the in-depth industry article "Why do cosmetic tattoos change color?", [18] Mainly, there are four main areas that have influence on the potential of a cosmetic tattoo to change color;

  1. Factors associated with the pigment properties
  2. Factors related to the tattoo artist’s methods and techniques
  3. Customer intrinsic factors
  4. Factors related to the client’s environment and medications

Examples[ edit]

Permanent make-up - wikipedia

The eyebrow tattoo is an example of a "powder-filled" technique as opposed to individual hair strokes, since the client already has eyebrow hair but only wanted enhancement and shaping. Top eyeliner represents a thin eyeliner tattoo and a "lash enhancement" procedure used to define the eye without making it look overly made up.

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